Release date：2021-12-28Author source：KinghelmViews：268
Shenzhen jinhangbiao Electronics Co., LtdFounded in 2007, shenzhenkinghellmelectronco., Ltd. is a national high-tech and dual soft certification enterprise, "senior member unit of China satellite navigation Association", an enterprise with ISO9001 (04617q13625ros) quality management certification system, and is improving iatf16949 automobile quality management system. Its main business is the R & D, production and sales of Beidou satellite navigation and IOT terminal application hardware, and www.bds666.com Com logistics information intelligent system solution.
There are many types of base station antennas, and the appearance of different types of antennas in mobile communication. Then, let's talk about the editor of golden beacon Electronics:Base station antennaWhat are the classifications?
1. Omnidirectional antenna
360 DEG in the horizontal direction; It radiates uniformly, that is, it is usually called non directivity. In the vertical pattern, it is shown as a beam with a certain width. Generally, the smaller the lobe width, the greater the gain. Omnidirectional antenna is generally used in mobile communication system as the station type of suburban county and large area system, with large coverage.
2. Directional antenna
In the horizontal pattern, it shows radiation in a certain angle range, that is, it is usually said to be directional. In the vertical pattern, it shows a beam with a certain width. Like the omnidirectional antenna, the smaller the lobe width, the greater the gain. Directional antenna is generally used in the station type of urban community system in mobile communication system, with small coverage, high user density and high frequency utilization.
Different types of base stations are established according to the networking requirements, and different types of antennas can be selected according to the needs of different types of base stations. The selection is based on the above technical parameters. For example, omnidirectional station adopts omnidirectional antenna with basically the same horizontal gain, while directional station adopts directional antenna with obvious change in horizontal gain. Generally, the horizontal beam width is 65 DEG in urban areas; In the suburbs, the horizontal beam width can be selected as 65 & deg 90° Or 120 & deg; According to the station configuration and local geographical environment, it is the most economical to select an omni-directional antenna that can achieve wide coverage in rural areas.
3. Mechanical antenna
Refers to a mobile antenna that mechanically adjusts the tilt down angle. After the mechanical antenna is installed perpendicular to the ground, if the position of the support on the back of the antenna needs to be adjusted and the inclination of the antenna needs to be changed due to the requirements of network optimization. During the adjustment process, although the coverage distance in the direction of the main lobe of the antenna changes significantly, the amplitudes of the vertical and horizontal components of the antenna remain unchanged, so the antenna pattern is easy to deform.
The practice shows that the best dip angle of mechanical antenna is 1-deg- 5°； The dip angle is 5-deg- 10° When changing, the antenna pattern is slightly deformed, but changes little; The dip angle is 10 DEG- 15° When changing, the antenna pattern changes greatly; When the mechanical antenna tilts down 15 DEG; After, the shape of the antenna pattern changes greatly, from a pear without downward inclination to a spindle shape. At this time, although the coverage distance in the main lobe direction is significantly shortened, the whole antenna pattern is not in the sector of the base station, and the signals of the base station will also be received in the sectors of adjacent base stations, resulting in serious interference in the system.
In addition, in daily maintenance, if the tilt angle of mechanical antenna is to be adjusted, the whole system shall be shut down and cannot be monitored while adjusting the tilt angle of antenna; It is very troublesome to adjust the downward inclination angle of the mechanical antenna. Generally, maintenance personnel need to climb to the antenna placement place for adjustment; The downward inclination angle of mechanical antenna is the theoretical value calculated by computer simulation analysis software, which has a certain deviation from the actual optimal downward inclination angle; The steps of adjusting the inclination angle of the mechanical antenna are 1 & deg;, The third-order intermodulation index is - 120dbc.
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