Release date：2021-12-29Author source：KinghelmViews：288
01 What is RFID
RFID (RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION) RFIT, also known as "electronic tag%% Target objects and get relevant data. RFID technology works greatly, in addition to operating in extreme environments, can also identify high-speed moving objects and the same time to identify multiple tags.
02RFID composition and working principle
RFID is mainly composed of three parts of the label, reader / reader, antenna.
The main function of the label is to adhere to the object to identify the target object, composed of coupling elements and chips, with unique electronic coding;
The main function of the reader / reader is to read (or write) tag information, divided into handheld and fixed;
The function of the antenna is to transmit a radio frequency signal between the label and the reader.
The basic workflow of RFID is that the reader sends a certain frequency of RF signals by transmitting an antenna, and the label enters the electromagnetic field. When the sensing current is generated, the label obtains energy is activated, and the product information stored in the chip is transmitted. Accept the antenna to send from the tag The carrier signal is transmitted back to the reader after the antenna regulator, and the reader is demodulated and decoded to the backbone master system. This tag is called a passive tag or passive tag. Active tag or active tag (Active Tag) actively transmits a signal of a frequency, after reading and decoding the signal, sending to the primary system for related data processing. The active label itself is equipped with a battery and has a higher cost compared to passive labels, and the read and write distance is far and the volume is large.
▲RFID identification technology works
The basic working principle of RFID technology is not complicated: After the label enters the magnetic field, the receiving the radio frequency signal emitted by the interpreter, and the product information stored in the chip is transmitted with the energy obtained by the sensing current (Passive Tag, Passive Tag or Passive Tag). Or actively send a signal (Active Tag, active tag or active label); the reader reads information and decodes, and sent to the central information system for related data processing.
▲RFID system architecture
RFID has a variety of ways, which can be divided into operation frequency classification, classified by power supply, and classify according to the application range. See the figure below for details:
04RFID operating frequency section
The RFID application system has a wide operating frequency, low to 100 kHz, high can be 5 GHz. At present, the internationally used frequency bands are: low frequency (125kHz-134kHz), high frequency (13.56MHz), ultra-high frequency (860m-960 MHz), and microwave (2.45 GHz, 5.8GHz) products. For the antenna, when the signal wave length of the transmission exceeds the antenna valid size, the antenna is obviously sensible as the circuit load, resulting in signal energy being stored in the antenna near field region, so that it cannot be transmitted efficiently. The antenna is limited by the application environment and weight, and it is often unable to do. A 13.56 MHz frequency is exemplified, the corresponding eight-half wave is about 2.7m, so the UHF band is the preferred application of passive RFID in a remote distance (0.5m ~ 10m) transmission. Compared to the 2.4GHz band, the 900MHz band antenna is more effective, meaning that more energy can be received.
▲RFID frequency band distribution diagram
▲RFID technology related protocol standards and characteristics
06RFID core technology
The RFID application accompanying UHF is increasingly wide, and the standardization of technology and product standardization is also continuously in progress. In the current industry specification ISO / IEC 18000-63, the technical level of RFID has made a clear provision. Passive RFID communication uses half-duplex mode, which first uses PIE encoders to send a UHF energy signal with broadcast properties, which has been made before the encoding, and the label receives a reader. The transmitted RF signal is demodulated and the data returns data to the reader using by reverse scattering technology. For the UHF electronic tag, the characteristics of the label chip are critical. It directly determines the storage capacity of the label product, read and write extreme distance, read / write speed, read and write parameters, information security, etc., is an electronic tag. The core technology of the product, as shown in Figure 5.1 UHF electronic tag chip architecture diagram.
▲UHF electronic tag chip architecture diagram
07RFID industry chain
A set of RFID solutions require design, readers, antenna, labels, brackets or cabinets, applications, software integration services, etc. Its industrial chain is fractionated, and there are many manufacturers in each link. Here is some representative manufacturers for reference.
The RFID chip is divided into label chips and reader chips. The development trend of its technology will still be lower power consumption, farther distance, faster read and write speed, more reliability and security, and the cost is continuously reduced. For domestic RFID chip manufacturers, the most important thing is stability, including production processes, they need to be improved.
NXP's RFID chip includes ultra-high frequency, high frequency, NFC and low frequency, and products have been widely used in storage, clothing retail, automotive electronics, brand protection tracking and livestock tracking.
For example, Ucode 8 RAIN RFID launched in 2017, is more sensitive, easier to embed tags, usually used in ultra-high frequency RFID tags. The chip can also add a dedicated ID number to companies that use the label to achieve brand identification.
US III Technology is a leading supplier in the industry, specializing in ultra-high frequency non-source radio frequency identification chips complies with Epcglobal Gen2 and ISO / IEC 18000-6C standards, as well as tags, readers, and professional services related technologies and products.
HIGGS-4 is a highly integrated single-chip EPC Gen2 ultra-high frequency amplifier identification tag chip. It can write data at low radio frequency power, or the label can be simultaneously written to data in a retail application of a large number of tags.
US Yingjie is the world's leading provider of ultra-high frequency Gen 2 RFID solutions, including high-performance label chips, readers, reader chips, software, antenna and system integration.
For example, Monza S6-C tag chips provide high performance and data integrity for large-scale item intelligent applications. It includes features such as automatic performance adjustment, self-diagnosis, and durable structures, while increasing the quality and reading performance of the label, also reduces the cost of label applications. It is suitable for retail, medical, ticketing and other applications.
Shanghai Fudan Microelectronics Group Co., Ltd. is based on multi-year technology accumulation in radio frequency and storage, with high compatibility, good compatibility, high compatibility, and high memory reliability, can be widely used in materials management, transportation Transport, logistics express, personnel management, access control management and other fields.
The ultra-high frequency RFID tag chip operating frequency section of Fudan microelectron is 840MHz to 960MHz. This series of chips include ultra-high frequency tag chips that meet the domestic standard GB / T29768 and GJB7377.1, and label chips that meet the international ISO18000-6C protocol. A safe version chip that can provide a normal version of the encryption algorithm and a plus algorithm, respectively.
5.Jiangsu Core Cloud Technology
Jiangsu Core Cloud Technology is a root of China's local, and the technological innovation-driven electronic technology company, relying on the competitive sea-produce technology team breakthrough in chip design and key technology, constructing a synergistic innovation and ecology of cloud applications, participating in global integrated circuits, Electronic solution commercialization competition. In addition to the capacity of the chip to the overall solution in the RFID, Core Cloud Technology has been widely used in the intelligent meter field of national grid, and the intelligent grid is widely used in the intelligent meter field of the national grid. Use electricity information to collect "Complete Collection, Full Control, Active Monitoring". At the same time, the 8-channel 16bit bit ADC chip, which core cloud technology independently developed, mainly used in the power grid relay protection device and automation equipment, and has passed the system verification of the national power network related industrial units, and enters the system actual hosted stage.
Core cloud technology RFID product overall solution cover cloud, tube, end, constructing a vertical Internet access pipe control system, product mainly includes RFID passive ultra-high frequency electronic tag chip, passive ultra-high frequency electronic tag, ultra-high frequency handheld Reader, Ultra High Frequency RFID Channel, Cloud Platform Information System, etc. The current product and program have been used in terms of asset management, intelligent warehousing, mobile inspection and other fields.
▲Application of RFID technology in asset management intelligent inspection
6.Shenzhen Yuanwang Valley
Shenzhen Yuanwang Valley Information Technology Co., Ltd. has a world-leading RFID product performance test center that provides RFID technology, product and solution services for large-scale Internet of Things, with 6 series of more than 100 kinds of RFID products. Its focusing on railways, books and retail three strategic industries, and provides high-performance RFID products and solutions for textile washing, smart tourism, tobacco and alcohol management, intelligent transportation and other fields.
Yuanwang Valley began to develop a special chip for developing truck electronic tags in 1995. At present, the first generation truck electronic label specialty chip with complete independent intellectual property rights has also made the truck electronic label has a "China Core". Due to this "China Core%%
The RFID antenna is also divided into label antenna and reader antenna. Different from applications, RFID tags may require attachment to different types, different shapes, and even need to be embedded inside the object. The label antenna and the reader antenna also assume the role of the received energy and emission energy, and these factors provide strict requirements for the design of the antenna.
The US Laeld Technology Group is a world-famous company designed and manufactures electromagnetic shielding materials, thermally conductive interface materials and wireless antenna products. The products are widely used in telecommunications, data communication, mobile phones, computer, general electronic devices, network equipment, aerospace, defense , Automotive and medical equipment.
Shenzhen Yingnel Technology Co., Ltd. is a technology company specializing in the design and development, production and sales of RFID antenna. It is mainly provided with RFID label companies: PET aluminum etching antenna, PET copper etching antenna, NFC circuit coil antenna, anti-metal interference antenna, various PCB high-precision shaped antennas, and agency for antenna design and development. It provides fast and high frequency and ultra-high-frequency etching antennas.
Foshan Australian News Technology Co., Ltd. integrates R %& D, production and sales. It is good at card reader antennas such as wireless RF applications, mainly 4G / LTE, 3G, WiFi, WiMAX, RFID, VHF / UHF, TV, MIMO, CPE, GPS, GSM, CDMA, etc.
RFID devices include readers and labels. The RFID reader can use electromagnetic field identification and tracking the RFID tag, and obtain electronic information stored by these tags.
1.Honeywell Scan and Mobile Technology (HSM)
Honeywell Scanning and Mobile Technical Ministry is affiliated with Honeywell Automation Control System Group. As a professional barcode scanner manufacturer, its products include laser barcode scanners, image barcode scanners, OEM scan engines, mobile data terminals, and barcode detectors.
2.Zebra technology company
Zebra Technologies started to develop RFID printers in 1999, successfully developed high-frequency, ultra-high frequency RFID printers. Zebra technology products and solutions are widely adopted by many industries around the world. For example, using bar code wristband and clinical sample collection, enhance patient medical safety; use mobile equipment to print receipts, speed up checkout; simplify the warehouse business process; and use real-time information to increase new analysis data for professional competitions and entertainment programs.
ThingMagic is a world-renowned RFID equipment manufacturer, founded in 2000, headquartered in Boston, USA. It focuses on the research and development and production of readers, sensors, and embedded system technology. Its fixed reader M6 and smart reader Astra have been widely used in the market and has high visibility and share in the world, widely used in vehicles management, personnel management and supply chain management. .
08RFID application scenario
RFID technology has been widely used in asset management, retail, logistics, clothing, transportation, medical, identification, financial payment and other fields, play an important role in the country's people's livelihood, and with the development and promotion of the Internet of Things technology, RFID as a perceived layer One of the key technologies and usher in a bigger chance. Take RFID in asset management as an example, let's take a look at the specific application of RFID technology in the IoT Asset Management Project.
As shown in the figure below, the RFID technical network asset management system can generally be divided into three-layer architecture:
▲Based on RFID Technology Intraction System Application Architecture
Information acquisition layer: Specific equipment includes the uniqueness of the RFID tag of the asset by RFID electronic tag, RFID handheld reader, RFID channel door, etc. To manage identity equipment assets.
Data Transportation Layer: The asset information collected by RFID reads and write devices can be transferred to the background system management platform via mobile network, WiFi, Ethernet, etc..
Business Management: Deploying a cloud management platform for managing various types of equipment resources within the system, and effectively performing data analysis, judges the freight out of the goods, warehouses, transit, and inventory. At the same time, the corresponding report indicates that the details are generated, and the corresponding processing is made in the system.
Through the application based on the Internet of asset management system, asset informationization, intelligent, standardized management, build assets full lifecycle management system and multi-level safety protection measures, realize account, card, material, and improve asset inventory efficiency, and achieve assets When the flow transaction is logged, the asset entry library abnormal state is actively reported, which greatly enhances daily work maintenance efficiency. At the same time, the business system is detailed and analyzed, and the asset business information is fully grasped, effectively excavated data value, enhances the level of data application, providing more valuable information for asset management decisions, and comprehensively enhance asset management level.
During the decades, RFID technology has been rich and perfect, active, passive and semi-passive electronic tags have been rapidly developed, single-chip electronic tag, multi-electronic label read, wireless readable, passive electronics The long-distance identification of the label is becoming a reality. Jinhang Standard Kinghelm Electronics Co., Ltd. not only becomes the North Dou antenna, GPS antenna, antenna cable, etc., but also to develop new products, and get more far from RFID.
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