Connector industry overview
A connector usually refers to an electromechanical element that connects a conductor (wire) with an appropriate mating element to turn on and off current or signal. It is widely used in aerospace, communication and data transmission, new energy vehicles, rail transit, consumer electronics, medical treatment and other fields.
From the perspective of global regional distribution, China has become the world's largest connector market. At present, the high-end technology and products of connectors are basically monopolized by international giants in the industry, and the connectors of foreign manufacturers account for more than 50% of China's connector market.
Although China is the largest connector Market in the world, due to the relatively late start of China's connector industry, the connectors currently produced are mainly medium and low-end, and the market share of high-end products is low. At present, there are more than 1000 connector manufacturers in China, including about 300 foreign-invested enterprises and more than 700 local manufacturing enterprises. In terms of domestic regional development, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta are areas where China's communication equipment, automobile manufacturing, medical devices, consumer electronics and other industries are concentrated.
Complete collection of connector manufacturers
There are also the following:
NAIS (Panasonic electric)
HY (ranhu, Korea)
ACON (continuous exhibition technology)
P-two (Hechang Xingye)
Suyin (Shiying Electronics)
Speedtech (Xuande Electronics)
High top (Yuding precision)
Guizhou Aerospace Electric Appliance
Yonggui electric appliance
Electric precision technology
Shaanxi Huada Technology
Shenzhen Tongmao Electronics Co., Ltd
Suzhou Ruida connection system
Yihua Co., Ltd
Information dimension communication
Cixi Kaifeng Electronics Co., Ltd
Ruibao Co., Ltd
Kunshan kexincheng Electronics
Qiande electronics LCN, etc
Overview of major market segments of connector industry
1. 5g communication and data
As one of the indispensable and important accessories in communication equipment, connector accounts for a large amount of value in communication equipment. Communication terminal equipment mainly includes switch, router, modem, user access terminal equipment, etc. In recent years, the rapid development of mobile Internet and the rapid growth of global data traffic have promoted the continuous expansion of network equipment and mobile terminal market, resulting in the rapid development of connectors for communication and data transmission.
The typical bandwidth requirements of 5g carrying forward, intermediate and return (access, convergence and core) are significantly increased compared with 4G. It is imperative to build a new communication network, expand and upgrade equipment, and drive the connector to develop at a high speed.
In the future, with the deployment of 5G and the large-scale promotion of autopilot cars, the opportunities for connector in telecommunications and data communications are expected to develop rapidly, including high-speed backplane connectors for communication equipment, 400G high-speed digital interface, high-end RF coaxial connectors, fiber optic connectors and high-speed and reliable connector products of 5G infrastructure.
It is expected that driven by 5g, the communication connector is expected to achieve both volume and price, which will greatly expand the market space. At the same time, equipment upgrading in the data center will increase the demand for high-performance backplane and mezzanine connectors and power interfaces. The large increase in data traffic transmission and backhaul will require new high-speed interconnection connectors, including SFP, SFP 28 and qsfp28, as well as optical fiber patch cords and jumpers.
2. Smartphone connector
A. RF coaxial connector
The basic structure of RF coaxial connector includes the central conductor (male or female central contact), the dielectric material outside the inner conductor (insulating material) and the outermost outer contact (shielding, i.e. the grounding element of the circuit). The RF coaxial connection and coaxial transmission cable components play the role of RF signal transmission between various RF module ports and the main board in smart phones. In addition, the RF connector can also be used to disconnect the RF circuit, and then lead out the RF signal of the tested unit to realize the testability of the RF circuit.
RF coaxial connectors are not the exclusive components of smart phones. They are almost needed in equipment that transmit and process RF signals (such as base stations). However, due to the shortage of internal space of smart phones, the RF coaxial connectors used in them need to be miniaturized. Even so, how to make the micro RF coaxial connectors "more miniaturized" is still the main theme of the industry. Thinness is one of the mainstream trends of smart phones in the past few years. Taking the iPhone as an example, from the iphone3G in 2008 to the iphone7s in 2016, almost every new model has a thickness reduction compared with the previous generation of products (iphone5c cheap version released in 2013). The thinness trend of smart phones requires the size of micro RF coaxial connectors to be reduced accordingly. In 2017, The chimeric height of the fifth generation USS RF products that can be supplied in batch by electrical connection technology (the height of the connector after installation on the equipment, representing the miniaturization level of the connector) is 1mm, while the chimeric height of the sixth generation USS RF products that are being produced in small batch at that time is only 0.8mm.
The production links of micro RF coaxial connector include design, mold development, production, manufacturing, testing and delivery. The production and manufacturing links include stamping, electroplating and injection molding. The high-precision production and preparation capability and the simulation and testing capability of RF signals are the natural moat of RF connectors. Firstly, the chimeric height of micro RF coaxial connectors continues to decrease, and the current minimum chimeric height has reached less than 1mm, which puts forward high requirements for the precision of molds, stamping molding, injection molding and other processing equipment; Secondly, RF signal propagates in the form of standing wave in the transmission cable. Better impedance matching needs to be realized between RF coaxial connector and cable, so as to reduce the voltage standing wave ratio of RF connector components and improve their transmission efficiency, which requires RF connector manufacturers to have strong RF signal simulation and testing ability.
B. BTB connector
Board to board (BTB) connector is a very common connector in smart phones. It is mainly composed of two parts: the terminal responsible for signal transmission and the shell responsible for fixing. The terminal is generally made of metal, and the shell is mainly made of plastic.
In smart phones, functional modules such as display module, camera module, fingerprint recognition module, face recognition module, headset, speaker and side key all realize signal interaction with chips through "FPC BTB connector PCB board". Therefore, with the continuous increase of smart phone functions, the single machine consumption of BTB connector is also increasing, About a dozen pairs of BTB connectors are used in the iPhone 11 # Pro # max.
Although there are differences in specifications, materials and pin numbers of various BTB connectors in smart phones. For example, in iphone11 promax, the pin numbers of BTB connectors responsible for batteries, side keys, motors and speakers are significantly less than those of camera modules and face recognition modules, due to the limitations of the internal space of the phone and the continuous integration of new functions, the PCB size continues to shrink, Further, the space that can be used by the BTB connector is compressed. In order to accommodate a sufficient number of pins, the pitch between pins is continuously reduced. In addition, similar to micro RF coaxial connectors, size (chimeric height) is another important consideration parameter of BTB connectors.
C. I / O connector
I / O connectors are mainly responsible for the signal interaction between the outside world and devices or between different devices. The initial smart phone needs several different types of I / O connectors, such as charging connector, audio connector and USB connector, which are respectively responsible for the transmission and interaction of electrical signals, audio signals and data. This kind of connector is less affected by 5g, but it is one of the indispensable components in smart phones.
3. New energy vehicle
In 2013, the automotive field accounted for only 16.27% of the connector market, and the development speed of this field has been remarkable in recent years. There are more than 100 kinds of traditional automobile single car connectors, with a number of about 500. With the improvement of people's requirements for automobile safety, environmental protection, comfort and intelligence, automobiles also use more kinds and numbers of connectors. The data show that the number of connectors used by new energy vehicles is 800 to 1000, which is much higher than the average level of traditional vehicles. Connector products are also widely used in supporting charging piles. According to the data, the average price of a single new energy vehicle charging pile is 20000 yuan, of which the cost of the connector is about 3500 yuan, and the value of the charging pile connector accounts for a large proportion.
With the rapid development of new energy vehicles, the number of supporting charging piles is still small. According to the data of China electric vehicle charging infrastructure promotion alliance, as of 2018, there were 300000 public charging piles and 477000 private charging piles, and the ratio of the number of new energy vehicles to the number of charging piles was 3.4:1. According to the electric vehicle charging infrastructure plan of the national energy administration, the number of domestic charging piles is expected to reach 4.5 million by 2020. By then, the ratio of new energy vehicles to the number of charging piles will reach 1.4:1. The growth rate of the number of charging piles will be significantly improved and is expected to achieve explosive growth.
In 2020, it is expected to add more than 12000 centralized charging and replacement power stations and more than 4.8 million decentralized charging piles. According to the annual increase of 150000 public charging piles and 300000 private charging piles, the investment cost of public charging piles is 50000 yuan and 25000 private charging piles. By 2025, more than 36000 charging and replacement power stations will be built, the vehicle pile ratio in China will reach 1:1, and the investment scale is expected to reach 90 billion yuan. Drive the rapid development of charging pile / charging station parts, rationalize charging operation and increase the number of new energy vehicles. It is expected that in 2025, it will drive the cumulative relevant investment of more than 270 billion yuan.
4. Military connector
Military connectors are essential components of new high-performance weapons and equipment such as reconnaissance aircraft, missiles and intelligent bombs. They are mainly used in high-tech fields such as aviation, aerospace, weapons, ships and electronics.
Military connector is the basic component necessary to form a complete weapon equipment system. Compared with commercial connector, it is a special and sensitive connector with remarkable characteristics: strict manufacturing tolerance, firm structure, high reliability, high cost and resistance to harsh environment. Traditionally, the connectors used in military industry mainly include circular, rectangular, printed circuit board, RF and a few special connectors.
Globally, the United States has the largest market in the field of military connectors. In 2014, global sales reached US $3.2 billion. U.S. enterprises occupy the top four. The U.S. defense industry manufactures 75% of the world's military electronic systems, and the total demand for U.S. military electrical connectors has reached 50% of the world. By 2020, the US military has basically completed the military informatization transformation; Reconnaissance aircraft, missiles and smart bombs are the main factors leading to the continuous growth of connectors. The US high-tech wars in Kosovo and Iraq are supported by a large number of information-based and intelligent new high-performance weapons and equipment. Such new military equipment and facilities will inevitably put forward new or higher requirements for the performance of various components and parts, including connectors.
With the continuous improvement of military informatization, the scale of China's military connector market has increased rapidly. According to the ranking of China's top 100 electronic components enterprises in 2018, the total revenue of AVIC optoelectronics, aerospace appliances, Shaanxi Huada, Sichuan Huafeng and aerospace electronics, the top five military connectors, reached 10.5 billion yuan, of which the total revenue of connectors was about 7.3 billion yuan, accounting for about 73% of the overall military connector market, with high market concentration in the military field. Due to the need for domestic substitution of military products, the R & D investment of relevant enterprises has been increasing, and the market competitiveness of the company has been improved through mergers and acquisitions of relevant enterprises. For example, AVIC optoelectronics has successively acquired Xi'an Fujida, Shenzhen Xiangtong optoelectronics and other enterprises since 2013; Aerospace Electric has successively acquired Suzhou Huayou and Linquan motors. While leading enterprises continue to increase their R & D investment, active extension mergers and acquisitions also provide growth power for the company. In the future, with the continuous improvement of military informatization and the acceleration of military modernization, the demand for a large number of new equipment will increase, and the market scale of military connectors is expected to continue to expand.
Connector Selection Guide
1. Wire to board connector - key points for selection
1、 Specification requirements for connector selection
2. Board to board connector - key points for model selection:
Common board to board connectors:
3. Wire to wire connector - key points for selection:
Common wire to wire connectors
Standardize common wire to wire connectors:
4. I / O connector - key points for selection:
Common I / O connectors
5. Coaxial connector - key points for selection
Common coaxial connector
6. Non welding terminal
Also known as cold pressed ends and joints. It is mainly used for safe grounding, AC power input and other occasions. Circular, U-type, hook type, chip type, pin type terminals and connectors are selected.
The end is made of high-quality copper to ensure conductivity; The end surface is tinned to prevent oxidation and corrosion; Silver is welded at the end and tail welds, and threaded lines are made in the inner holes to enhance the tensile resistance. The above mainly describes the characteristics of k.s.t terminal (UL certification and CSA certification). There are many terminal types. Now the terminal model is described, such as rvs1-4 R - terminal type; V --- type of end and tail; S - end width; 1 --- sectional area of conductor; 4 --- bolt diameter.
The connection mode between terminal and wire rod is mainly crimping. Crimping is to reshape the crimping cylinder surrounding the conductor by means of pressure deformation, so that the conductor can be permanently crimped on the terminal to form a good electrical and mechanical connection. Key points for model selection:
Common non welded terminals
7. Terminal strip - key precautions for type selection:
Common terminal strip
2、 Connector selection table
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