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Special report on millimeter wave in communication industry: millimeter wave development is in full swing

Release date:2021-12-28Author source:KinghelmViews:433

Millimeter wave and sub-6ghz complement each other and have made continuous breakthroughs recently.According to 3GPP protocol, 5g network mainly uses two frequencies: FR1 band and FR2 band. The frequency range of FR1 band is 450MHz ~ 6GHz, also known as sub-6ghz band; The frequency range of FR2 band is 24.25ghz ~ 52.6ghz, which is called millimeter wave. Millimeter wave has the advantages of higher network rate, more accurate propagation and less possibility of interference. At present, millimeter wave has basically taken shape in terms of spectrum and standards. 22 operators around the world have deployed commercial millimeter wave 5g networks. The United States, Japan and South Korea are currently in the lead. China's equipment, such as Huawei, ZTE and three operators, have made continuous breakthroughs in millimeter wave recently.

The advantages of millimeter wave are prominent and contribute to the development of 5g in an all-round way.Millimeter wave has the following characteristics:multipleAdvantages, help 5g capacity expansion and application landing. 1) Millimeter wave spectrum resources are abundant, reversing the plight of global spectrum shortage; 2) Millimeter wave large capacity and high bandwidth give 5g higher performance, low communication delay and improve user experience rate; 3) Millimeter wave has the characteristics of small antenna, light weight and easy deployment; 4) The millimeter wave beam is narrow and has good directivity, which improves the positioning accuracy better than sub-6ghz.

5g millimeter wave, with broad application scenarios in the future.The 5g era will face the demand of massive connection and ultra-high speed. Millimeter wave technology will be mainly applied to the expansion of hot spots and high traffic areas. Outdoor, commercial pedestrian blocks, stations, streets and other business hot spots have become millimeter wave representative scenes. Indoor, high-density venues and indoor private enterprise scenes such as concerts and gymnasiums will also be suitable for millimeter wave. In addition, the diversification trend of millimeter wave applications is gradually emerging. On the one hand, millimeter wave can be used for fixed wireless broadband access (FWA) services to meet the transmission needs of 4K and 8K TVs and the video needs of suburban residential areas; Open environment embB service to meet HD, UHD video, picture and video sharing and other services. On the other hand, with the advantages of small equipment, easy deployment, huge capacity and providing a single point transmission rate of more than 10Gbit / s with technology updates, millimeter wave will accelerate the generation of more realistic image technologies, such as holographic communication. In addition, industry 4.0, interconnected transportation and smart Dongao will be millimeter wave application scenarios.

Industrial development is in full swing, with remarkable economic benefits.In terms of planning and standardization, the application of millimeter wave spectrum to 5g has become an industry consensus. Countries actively plan millimeter wave spectrum, and millimeter wave standardization is gradually implemented. R17 will further accelerate millimeter wave application. At present, the industry is improving day by day, and all ends actively promote millimeter wave commerce. On the base station side, Huawei, ZTE, Nokia bell, Ericsson, Samsung and other enterprises have started the millimeter wave base station function test. On the chip side, China has developed a domestic CMOS millimeter wave fully integrated 4-channel phased array chip, completed chip packaging and testing, and reduced the cost per channel by 98%. In addition, Huawei is expected to launch millimeter wave chipsets and RF subsystems next year. On the terminal side, at present, domestic millimeter wave terminal equipment is mainly divided into two types. The mobile terminal loaded with Qualcomm x55 chip and the mobile terminal loaded with Hisilicon 5000 chip have supported millimeter wave NSA networking and have the MIMO capability of 2T2R. In addition, operators actively arranged millimeter wave construction, and equipment manufacturers such as Huawei, ZTE and Ericsson participated in 5g millimeter wave test to achieve technical breakthrough.

Investment advice: with the increasing improvement of millimeter wave industry, operators and equipment manufacturers at base station side, terminal side and chip side are actively layout, which is expected to help 5g development and application popularization. It is suggested to focus on Longtou hertai with long-term R & D and mature product accumulation in millimeter wave RF chip technology, And other related companies, including Shenglu communication (not covered) with product and R & D advantages in 5g millimeter wave antenna and military millimeter wave productscover)Wait. In addition, due to the technical complexity and coverage area of millimeter wave, its construction may accelerate the promotion of orders from equipment manufacturers. It is recommended to pay attention to communication equipment manufacturers such as ZTE and beacon communication, and because millimeter wave supports higher rate and larger bandwidth, it is bound to accelerate the expansion and upgrading of optical transmission network, It is suggested to focus on 5g optical module, leading Guangxun technology, Huagong technology, etc.

1. It complements sub-6ghz and has made continuous breakthroughs recently

Millimeter wave and sub-6ghz complement each other and jointly release the full potential of 5g.According to 3GPP protocol, 5g network mainly uses two frequencies: FR1 band and FR2 band. The frequency range of FR1 band is 450MHz ~ 6GHz, also known as sub-6ghz band; The frequency range of FR2 band is 24.25ghz ~ 52.6ghz, which is called millimeter wave. Low frequency band is the basic coverage network of 5g, which has the advantages of long propagation distance and wide coverage, while millimeter wave has the advantages of higher network speed, more accurate propagation and less possibility of interference.

1: 3GPP protocol specifies 5g network frequency

Millimeter wave has basically taken shape in terms of spectrum and standard.In November 2019, the ITU World radiocommunication Conference (wrc-19) identified more frequency bands for 5g, including 24.25ghz ~ 27.5ghz, 37ghz ~ 43.5ghz, 45.5ghz ~ 47ghz, 47.2ghz ~ 48.2ghz and 66ghz ~ 71ghz, providing a reference basis for countries to plan millimeter wave frequency bands. In terms of standards, R15 millimeter wave standard has a relatively high degree and can support commercial use, and this version defines user pairing, user tracking, multi carrier management and other parts different from sub-6ghz. R16 version further optimizes millimeter wave to reduce system overhead, enhance performance and improve network coverage to improve spectrum efficiency.


     


22 operators around the world have deployed commercial millimeter wave 5g networks, and the United States, Japan and South Korea are currently in the lead.According to the global mobile supplier GSA report, as of June 2020, 22 operators in the world were using millimeter wave spectrum to deploy 5g networks, 97 operators held public licenses to use millimeter wave spectrum, and 123 operators invested in 5g network construction within the range of 24.25-29.5ghz millimeter wave tiling. Among the countries that have deployed or are deploying millimeter wave commercial, the United States, Japan and South Korea are temporarily in a leading position. Among them, American operators have carried out millimeter wave commercial deployment in many cities such as New York, Los Angeles and Chicago. In the 2018 Pingchang Winter Olympic Games, South Korea has applied millimeter wave to audio-visual broadcasting technology, and deployed 28ghz millimeter wave as capacity supplement in some hot areas. Japan is also conducting field tests in Nagoya, Sendai and other places. At present, the commercial deployment of millimeter wave in the United States, Japan and South Korea is mainly in the 28ghz band. In terms of terminal devices, 17 of the commercially available terminal devices in the world support millimeter wave. Among the terminal devices released by major manufacturers, 30.8% of the terminal devices can support millimeter wave, and 25% of the terminal devices can support sub-6g and millimeter wave at the same time.


     



Recent breakthroughs in millimeter wave development in China.In March 2020, the notice of the Ministry of industry and information technology on promoting the accelerated development of 5g issued by the Ministry of industry and information technology clearly stated that it is necessary to "timely release the frequency use plan of some 5g millimeter wave bands" and "organize millimeter wave equipment and performance tests to make good reserves for the commercial use of 5g millimeter wave technology". Under the policy guidance, China's three major operators and industrial chain manufacturers such as Huawei and ZTE are actively layout the millimeter wave commercial market and continue to make breakthroughs in technology R & D, application scenario testing and terminal equipment R & D. In August 2019, Huawei demonstrated the use of Huawei mate x mobile phone to play 4K high-definition video online through millimeter wave technology. It is the first manufacturer in the world to use folding screen mobile phone to open up 5g millimeter wave end-to-end communication in real network environment. In addition, Huawei hisilic chip successfully conducted indoor function test of 5g millimeter wave key technologies. In June 2020, Liu Yunjie, academician of Chinese Academy of engineering, said that Nanjing Zijinshan Laboratory for network communication and security had developed CMOS millimeter wave fully integrated 4-channel phased array chip, and completed chip packaging and testing, with the cost per channel reduced from 1000 yuan to 20 yuan. In September 2020, ZTE became the first in the world to complete the end-to-end millimeter wave system performance test based on multi probe darkroom in the millimeter wave OTA (over the air technology) performance test system jointly initiated by China Institute of information and communication and China Mobile Research Institute. China Unicom announced that it would complete the deployment of millimeter wave application products for the Winter Olympic Games in June 2021. In addition, in terms of equipment terminals, ZTE, Yijia, mobile and other manufacturers have launched mobile hotspots, mobile phones, modules and other products that support millimeter wave capability.

2. The advantages of millimeter wave are prominent and contribute to the development of 5g in an all-round way

First, millimeter wave spectrum resources are abundant, reversing the plight of global spectrum shortage.The rapid development of mobile Internet poses a challenge to wireless spectrum resources. In the development process of 2G, 3G and 4G, the high-quality frequency resources within 6GHz in various countries have been gradually consumed, and they are extremely crowded, even involving spectrum conflict and lack of spectrum resources. In recent years, the global 5g communication network layout construction has been gradually implemented, deepening the urgent demand for spectrum resources in various countries. According to the estimation of ITU of the International Telecommunication Union, the frequency demand of international mobile communication will reach 1340mhz-1960mhz by 2020. According to the data of the Telecommunications Research Institute of the Ministry of industry and information technology, by 2020, China's IMT (international mobile communication system) spectrum demand will be 1864mhz, and China's spectrum gap will be 1177mhz. Countries around the world are facing the dilemma of scarce spectrum resources. According to 3gpp38 101 according to the agreement, 5g base station equipment mainly uses FR1 frequency band - sub-6ghz (450mhz-6ghz) and FR2 frequency band (24.25ghz-52.6ghz). Among them, the maximum bandwidth that 4G LTE cellular system based on sub-6ghz band can use is only 100MHz, and the data rate does not exceed 1Gbps. Moreover, sub-6ghz is widely used and the frequency band is congested, which can not better meet the demand for spectrum resources in 5g construction. Therefore, countries and major manufacturers focus on the research and development of FR2 band millimeter wave resources to fill the resource gap. Millimeter wave frequency covers a wide range, the available spectrum bandwidth is much larger than the low-frequency band, and the development space is broad, usually 30ghz to 300GHZ, and the bandwidth is as high as 270ghz. Millimeter wave has the natural core advantage of rich spectrum resources. Taking the 28ghz band as an example, the available spectrum bandwidth reaches 1GHz, while the available signal bandwidth of each channel in the 60GHz band is 2GHz. Relying on the natural advantages of rich spectrum resources, millimeter wave has solved the problem of shortage of wireless spectrum resources. Millimeter wave spectrum planning in various countries has also been gradually implemented, which is expected to further promote the construction of global 5g communication.


     



Second, the large capacity and high bandwidth of millimeter wave give 5g higher performance, low communication delay and improve the user experience rate.The bandwidth in millimeter wave is 273.5ghz, including carrier bandwidth of 400mhz-800mhz and wireless transmission rate of 10Gbps. 1) High bandwidth gives 5g more diversified application potential: the allocation of millimeter wave with large bandwidth of 24 ghz-86 GHz in millimeter wave will provide expanded bandwidth and high-quality performance for the needs of 5g applications in the future, so as to meet the demands of users' mobile data services and the needs of 5g new applications. Li Yan, senior director of Qualcomm technical standards, introduced that with the support of millimeter wave large bandwidth, users of the live video port of the 2022 Beijing Winter Olympic Games can not only watch the scene in front of them, but also watch sports competitions 360 degrees from a free perspective. The unique advantages of millimeter wave will give 5g more application possibilities and comprehensively improve the user experience rate. In addition, especially the millimeter wave spectrum in the 24.25-27.5ghz and 37-43.5ghz bands of millimeter wave can provide the required bandwidth and continuous spectrum for a large number of data intensive 5g application scenarios, giving 5g more development potential. 2) High bandwidth supports high-speed rate and low delay, and large capacity promotes the release of 5g potential: millimeter wave can supply carrier bandwidth up to 400-800mhz, which is dozens of times higher than 20MHz of 4G, and can improve 5g transmission rate to 10Gbps level. Compared with the frequency band below 6GHz, millimeter wave delay is shorter, less than one fifth of 6GHz, meeting the requirements of 5g applications for ultra large capacity The transmission requirements of high speed and low delay can greatly improve the number of network connections, accommodate more users and improve the user experience. According to the measurement data obtained from the millimeter wave spectrum test of 400MHz bandwidth currently deployed by ookla in the United States, the peak rate of 5g millimeter wave terminals equipped with Xiaolong mobile platform exceeds 2gbps, the average download rate exceeds 900mbps, and the rate is more than 4 times that of 5g medium frequency band. Compared with 4G LTE, there is a leap forward. When the millimeter wave deployment increases to 800MHz in the future, The speed will be doubled and a new breakthrough will be made.




Third, millimeter wave has the characteristics of small antenna, light weight and easy deployment.Millimeter wave has the characteristics of short wave length and small antenna size, and the size of millimeter wave components is small. Compared with sub-6g equipment, millimeter wave equipment is easier to miniaturize, so it can realize the miniaturization and lightweight of large-scale array. In recent years, Qualcomm has successively launched Xiaolong X50, x55 and other chips, as well as the third generation qtm535 millimeter wave antenna module for mobility, which integrates antenna, RF front-end and transceiver in a very limited size; In 2018, Qualcomm further reduced the size of its qtm052-5mm wave antenna module by 25%.

Fourth, the millimeter wave beam is narrow and has good directivity, which improves the positioning accuracy better than sub-6ghz.The ultra-high bandwidth provided by millimeter wave band ensures higher time-resolved granularity, and the millimeter wave length is small. Relying on multi antenna beamforming technology to reduce path loss, the communication has directionality. In addition, millimeter wave has narrow beam, good directivity, high angle and spatial resolution, which is more suitable for high-precision indoor positioning.


     



Millimeter wave propagation is characterized by a "double-edged sword", which can highlight its advantages when applied according to materials.Millimeter wave propagation modes are mainly line of sight propagation (LOS) and non line of sight propagation (NLOS). Compared with 3.5GHz wave frequency, millimeter wave Los path passing through the same obstacle is easy to be blocked, difficult to penetrate, large road loss and poor coverage. The higher millimeter wave transmission frequency leads to the increase of free space loss, and the millimeter wave is very vulnerable to shadow fading, resulting in signal interruption or intermittent transmission. As a result, the deployment and propagation of millimeter wave are limited, and the coverage of a single base station is small. It needs to be used in joint networking with sub-6ghz while deploying more base stations. The propagation characteristics of millimeter wave are not only its weakness, but also its advantage. The advantage is that due to the limited propagation distance, it is easier to separate in practical application, which is convenient for the coverage of control signals, so as to realize the different configurations between coverage islands. For example, the camera monitoring area covered in the factory park can be configured as uplink priority, while the transmission software download in the plant can be configured as downlink priority. Millimeter wave propagation is a double-edged sword, which is suitable for simultaneous interpreting and deploying different propagation scenarios.


     



Wi Fi can not replace millimeter wave application scenarios. They have their own advantages.1) Compared with Wi Fi in the same frequency band, millimeter wave has the same bandwidth and rate, but compared with Wi Fi with relatively fixed application sites and users, 5g millimeter wave can realize more perfect protocols and algorithms such as beam management, multi-user scheduling, resource allocation, control and cooperation, and has higher reliability and better user experience, This makes Wi Fi unable to easily replace 5g millimeter wave application scenarios. 2) compared with the advantages of 5G millimeter wave bandwidth and Massive MIMO, it can centrally schedule and support better performance under multi-user concurrence, while Wi-Fi belongs to competitive access. Under multi-user scenarios, QoS will deteriorate due to lack of centralized scheduling adjustment. 3) Both have their own advantages, depending on the actual application scenario. If the number of users is small and the mobility is low, the price of Wi Fi is more competitive than millimeter wave; If the number of users is large, the mobility is strong, and they are in hot spots, this is the application range of millimeter wave, and their advantages are greater.

3. 5g millimeter wave, with broad application scenarios in the future

Based on the special physical characteristics, millimeter wave has broad commercial prospects.The 5g era will face the demand of massive connection and ultra-high speed. Millimeter wave technology will be mainly applied to the expansion of hot spots and high traffic areas. Outdoor, commercial pedestrian blocks, stations, streets and other business hot spots have become millimeter wave representative scenes. Indoor, high-density venues and indoor private enterprise scenes will also be suitable for millimeter wave. For example, in densely populated areas such as concerts and gymnasiums, there are problems such as poor mobile phone signal and slow network speed. By using the large bandwidth and high spatial multiplexing gain of millimeter wave, we can meet the large demand for wireless broadband access in crowded places and bring a better Internet experience. In addition, on February 19, 2019, Qualcomm launched a new end-to-end OTA 5g test network for millimeter wave and below 6GHz bands. Including 5g NR indoor millimeter wave OTA network in New Jersey, which is specially deployed for indoor venues and enterprises to bring high-capacity, thousands of megabits transmission rate and low delay connections to indoor smartphones, laptops and other networked terminals. With the help of millimeter wave IAB technology, 5g high-speed and low delay communication can also be enjoyed in isolated islands or mountainous areas where optical fiber laying is difficult. On May 24, 2018, Huawei completed the field test of 39 GHz millimeter wave IAB. The test shows that the millimeter wave coverage and capacity can be greatly improved through IAB technology, and 5g communication can also be enjoyed in isolated islands or mountainous areas.

The diversification trend of millimeter wave application fields is gradually emerging.On the one hand, millimeter wave can be used for fixed wireless broadband access (FWA) services to meet the transmission needs of 4K and 8K TVs and the video needs of suburban residential areas; Open environment embB service to meet HD, UHD video, picture and video sharing and other services. On the other hand, with the advantages of small equipment, easy deployment, huge capacity and providing a single point transmission rate of more than 10Gbit / s with technology updates, millimeter wave will accelerate the generation of more realistic image technologies, such as holographic communication, immersive VR cloud games, networked robots and other services. For example, Verizon uses millimeter wave 5g to realize real-time viewing of VR from different perspectives and in different ways, AR linkage background data analysis, event interpretation and other services that cannot be carried by 4G. In addition, the field of Internet of vehicles will also benefit from millimeter wave. Millimeter wave will provide higher data transmission rate and accuracy for networked automotive communication, improve the resolution of radar operation and achieve more accurate driving safety assistance.

Industry 4.0: millimeter wave helps realize 5g potential of manufacturing industry.The technical potential of 5g millimeter wave provides support for promoting the development of industry 4.0. Millimeter wave has potential applications in remote control, industrial robot, remote monitoring and quality control and self-service factory transportation. These potential applications will transmit a large amount of data through a large number of interconnected devices, a huge amount of data, and support ar, VR applications and high-speed imaging, Millimeter wave spectrum connection with reliable, high capacity and low delay is required. On June 15, 2020, Nanjing Zijinshan Laboratory for network communication and security has developed 5g millimeter wave chip. Millimeter wave chip is the core of high-capacity 5g mobile communication and has great application value in industrial Internet. It plays a role in the lowest demand of industrial Internet - connection and data return. It has high bandwidth, low delay, high reliability and large connection Flexible configuration and other development directions are consistent.

Connected transportation: 5g millimeter wave helps solve the challenges brought by urbanization and heavy traffic burden.5g millimeter wave can be used for transportation management. The millimeter wave spectrum can support the interconnected traffic environment by increasing capacity and low delay broadband, avoid serious consequences caused by delay or disconnection, be applied to data transmission and radar positioning in the Internet of vehicles (v2x) ecosystem, and provide support in terms of safety and network speed, Play an indirect role in promoting urban transportation infrastructure. In addition, 5g millimeter wave network can also realize immersive car entertainment and high-speed broadband.

Millimeter wave combines with the industry private network to provide bandwidth private network services that are flexible to distinguish between the frequency points of the public network.5g millimeter wave, MEC and AI technologies complement each other, enabling industrial networks such as parks, docks and factories. On the one hand, because the millimeter wave system has the characteristics of large bandwidth and low delay, and where the business demand is large, the superposition and coverage of millimeter wave can improve the network capacity, and the combination with MEC can better release MEC technology; On the other hand, MEC can also overlay rich and diverse value-added services for millimeter wave on the basis of large bandwidth network, such as the solution of "high-capacity and high-speed localization", and provide customized Park private network services for the coverage area. In addition, millimeter wave supports high-definition video services to improve the user experience. Factories and docks can also benefit from millimeter wave to provide security and low delay guarantee.


     



Smart Winter Olympics: 5g millimeter wave provides business and technical support.In order to fully implement the requirements of "preparing for the Beijing Winter Olympic Games and the winter Paralympic Games" put forward at the 19th National Congress and implement the overall plan and task division plan for the preparation of the Beijing 2022 Winter Olympic Games and the winter Paralympic Games, China Unicom will use millimeter wave technology to build ultra wideband wireless venues, promote the research and development of millimeter wave technology and play a network demonstration effect. It is specifically applied to the three scenes of improving the viewing experience, intelligent operation of the competition venue and partner service and guarantee, and serves six groups of audiences, contestants, organizers, staff, media and partners. Specifically, millimeter wave will provide the following technical support. First, the millimeter wave high-frequency and low-frequency hybrid networking scheme is adopted to highlight its bandwidth advantages. In cooperation with sub-6g band, as a high-throughput layer, it provides large bandwidth capability and hot spot coverage. Second, using the large bandwidth transmission characteristics of millimeter wave as a wireless transmission scheme, it is applied to FWA service and IAB return service. Third, replace optical fiber to build a pure wireless venue. Fourth, taking advantage of the advantages that millimeter wave is easy to form isolation and facilitate coverage control in applications, the flexible frame structure deployment between cells is carried out to provide flexible and differentiated uplink and downlink bandwidth services. In terms of viewing experience, millimeter wave can meet the demand of 5Gbps high-capacity downlink bandwidth for centralized deployment of more than 50 VR devices in a certain area, and provide technical support for 5g 8K VR multi stand and multi angle shooting to create a panoramic experience scheme. In terms of monitoring management, it meets the high requirements for uplink bandwidth and transmission delay in terms of high-capacity return of surveillance cameras. In addition, millimeter wave also meets the bandwidth requirements of the media service area.

4. Industrial development is in full swing, with remarkable economic benefits

4.1 ensure the development of millimeter wave industry when spectrum planning and standardization are carried out

The application of millimeter wave spectrum to 5g has become a consensus in the industry, and countries actively plan millimeter wave spectrum.In China, the Ministry of industry and information technology issued a public comment letter on June 8, 2017, soliciting opinions and suggestions on the use and planning of 26ghz (24.75-27.5ghz), 40GHz (37-42.5ghz) or other millimeter wave bands in 5g systems. In July of the same year, the Ministry of industry and information technology approved the 24.75-27.5ghz and 37-42.5ghz frequency bands to be used for the millimeter wave experimental frequency band of 5g technology research and development in China. In the United States, FCC has planned rich high-frequency resources. On July 14, 2016, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) unanimously approved the rules and regulations on the use of spectrum above 24GHz for wireless broadband services, planning a total of 10.85ghz high-frequency spectrum for 5g wireless technology, including 28g (27.5-28.35ghz) and 39G (38.6-40ghz), a total of 2.25GHz licensed spectrum, 37G (37-38.6ghz) 1.6GHz mixed licensed spectrum and 64-71ghz 7GHz unlicensed spectrum. Since then, FCC has issued a series of plans to plan millimeter wave resources of different spectrum. At present, the United States has completed spectrum auctions of 24GHz (24.25-24.45 / 24.75-25.25ghz), 28ghz (27.5-28.35 GHz), 37ghz (37-38.6ghz), 39ghz (38.6-40ghz) and 47ghz (47.2-48.2ghz), providing sufficient frequency resources for commercial deployment of 5g millimeter wave. In the European Union, rspg released the European 5g spectrum strategy in November 2016. In terms of millimeter wave band, 26G (24.25-27.5ghz) band is clearly regarded as the initial deployment band of European 5g high frequency band. In July 2018, EC pT1 basically completed the research and formulation of 26ghz band technology application conditions. In addition, the EU will also carry out 40GHz (40.5-43.5ghz) millimeter wave research. In South Korea, the Ministry of future creative science (MSIP) announced the k-ict spectrum planning in January 2017 to promote the 28ghz (26.5-29.5ghz) band for 5g commercial deployment. Among them, SK Telecom obtained 28.1ghz-28.9ghz frequency band, KT obtained 26.5ghz-27.3ghz frequency band, and LG uplus obtained 27.3ghz-28.1ghz frequency band. At present, South Korea has completed the auction of 26.5ghz ~ 29.5ghz spectrum. In addition, relevant competent authorities in Japan, Canada and other countries have also launched public consultation on the planning and use of millimeter wave bands. Japan proposes 5g commercial spectrum plan for 2020, mainly focusing on 28g (27.5-29.5ghz) frequency band; Canada put forward revision opinions for mobile service applications in 28g (27.5-28.35ghz) band and 37-40ghz band.

With the gradual implementation of millimeter wave standardization, R17 will further accelerate the application of millimeter wave.At the beginning of 2016, 3GPP cooperated with major communication manufacturers in the world and published a technical report on millimeter wave channel model: tr38 900, clarify and prove the feasibility of millimeter wave band as 5g operation band in outdoor communication, and provide strong support for the development of 5g millimeter wave communication system. According to 3GPP 5g standardization roadmap, 5g NR standard is formulated in three stages. The first stage (REL 15) is to complete the formulation of NSA (non independent Networking) and SA (independent Networking). For millimeter wave, the solution based on large-scale multi antenna technology and related system information design are formulated, and the related functions based on management are defined to meet the needs of millimeter wave basic deployment. In terms of frequency band, R15 defines the spectrum of four frequency band numbers below 52.6ghz for millimeter wave spectrum allocation. The second stage (REL 16) mainly focuses on the application of vertical industries and the improvement of the overall system. The main functions are for v2x, IOT and other industries. For millimeter wave, R16 focuses on the working efficiency of millimeter wave system based on R15. For example, some default configurations are introduced to quickly obtain the spatial correlation of ap-srs, which can enable millimeter wave to complete the relevant configuration more quickly and achieve better performance. In terms of frequency band, the millimeter wave research project in the frequency band above 52.6ghz is launched in R16 stage. In the third stage (REL 17), a preliminary plan has been proposed, which will be incorporated into the relevant specifications of mmtc. There are major technological innovations in data acquisition enhancement projects, data acquisition enhancement projects and application capacity enhancement of vertical industries, so as to more fully support the networking application of vertical industries. For millimeter wave, the operating frequency will be expanded to 52.6-71ghz. At the same time, more 5g NR enhancement features supporting millimeter wave will be introduced to enrich millimeter wave application scenarios, such as those at speeds above 30km, and commob beam mechanism will be introduced.

ITU confirmed the division of 5g millimeter wave frequency band and completed the research on the coexistence of millimeter wave and radio services.ITU carried out the ITU World radiocommunication Conference (wrc-19), and countries reached a consensus on the use of 5g millimeter wave spectrum: globally, spectrum resources with 14.75ghz bandwidth of 24.25 ~ 27.5ghz, 37 ~ 43.5ghz, 45.5 ~ 47ghz, 47.2 ~ 48.2ghz and 66 ~ 71ghz are identified for the future development of 5g and IMT. Among them, 24.25 ghz-27.5 GHz, 37 ghz-43.5 GHz and 66 ghz-71 GHz will be used as 5g global unified working frequency band. In addition, ITU set up a Tg 5 / 1 working group during the 2019 World Radio Conference research cycle to complete the research on the compatibility and coexistence of 5g system with relevant radio services in different millimeter wave candidate frequency bands, including EESS satellite earth exploration, RAS radio astronomy, ISS inter satellite, FSS fixed satellite, RNS radio navigation, SRS space research, FS fixed MS mobile and other services.

4.2 millimeter wave brings high economic benefits and broad market space in China

The unique application scenario of millimeter wave will drive China's 100 billion market.Due to the advantages of rich spectrum resources, high transmission rate and low port to air delay, millimeter wave will be widely used in the middle and later stage of 5g commercial. With the increasing demand for data traffic, millimeter wave, with its unique advantages, can greatly expand the service capacity range of 5g, and open up emerging markets such as fixed wireless access, indoor and outdoor open space with high service density, enterprise private network and so on. According to GSMA's prediction, 5g millimeter wave will become the core enabling technology in high-speed access, industrial automation, medical health, intelligent transportation and virtual reality. It is expected to make a contribution of US $565 billion to the global GDP by 2035, accounting for 25% of the total contribution of 5g. Millimeter wave has great market potential in China. As a pioneer of 5g, China has carried out 5g millimeter wave related tests and deployment, and carried out typical scenario application verification from 2020 to 2021. In the future, it will open 100 billion millimeter wave commercial market. According to GSMA's prediction, by 2034, the economic benefits brought by the use of millimeter wave band in China will have an effect of about US $104 billion, accounting for 49% of the estimated contribution value of millimeter wave band in the Asia Pacific region (expected to reach US $212 billion). According to vertical industry distribution, utilities such as manufacturing and hydropower will become the largest market, accounting for 62%. Financial and professional services, information communication and trade, agriculture and mining, and public services accounted for 12%, 10%, 9%, and 8% respectively.

4.3 the industry is becoming more and more perfect, and all ends actively promote millimeter wave commerce

4.3.1 millimeter wave base station side and terminal chips are becoming more and more mature

Base station side:Huawei, ZTE, Nokia bell, Ericsson, Samsung and other enterprises have started the function test of millimeter wave base stations. Among them, Huawei and ZTE have carried out system cooperation with Hisilicon and Qualcomm chips to carry out the test of millimeter wave indoor key technologies under the total bandwidth configuration of 800MHz; Nokia bell and Ericsson tested CPE based on Qualcomm X50 chip and millimeter wave RF module under 400MHz total broadband configuration; Samsung has launched link cell 5g millimeter wave small base station to expand the coverage of 5g UWB network.

Terminal and chip side:Millimeter wave chips and terminals have developed rapidly around the world. The first generation of millimeter wave first chip has appeared in early 2018, mainly supporting n260 and n261 bands. In 2019, the second generation of batch commercial millimeter wave chips will appear, supporting millimeter wave full band. By the end of 2020, mainstream handheld terminals, MiFi and CPE, can support millimeter wave full band. At present, Qualcomm millimeter wave chips are relatively mature. Qualcomm is the only chip manufacturer that can provide commercial millimeter wave chipsets and RF subsystems. As of July this year, among the 185 models of 5g smartphones officially shipped in the global market, 23 of them support millimeter wave band, and all use Qualcomm's baseband chips and RF components. In addition, Samsung exynos5123, Hisilicon balong5000 baseband chip and MediaTek Helio M80 have supported millimeter wave band. Domestic chips and terminals are gradually developing. In terms of chips, China has developed domestic CMOS millimeter wave fully integrated 4-channel phased array chips, completed chip packaging and testing, and reduced the cost per channel by 98%. In addition, Huawei is expected to launch millimeter wave chipsets and RF subsystems next year. In terms of terminal equipment, at present, domestic millimeter wave terminal equipment is mainly divided into two types. The mobile terminal loaded with Qualcomm x55 chip and the mobile terminal loaded with Hisilicon 5000 chip have supported millimeter wave NSA networking and have the MIMO capability of 2T2R.

4.3.2 operators actively layout millimeter wave construction

Operators actively layout millimeter wave construction.Globally, as of June 2020, 123 operators have invested in millimeter wave, of which 21 are planning to deploy 5g millimeter wave networks. As early as December 2018, American operator at & T has launched 5g service based on 39ghz millimeter wave in some areas of 12 cities in the United States. Version, another U.S. operator, also relies on millimeter wave resources to establish 5g coverage and achieve high-speed transmission. Since the launch of the first mobile 5g city in April 2019, it has launched millimeter wave 5g services in more than 31 cities. In China, the three major operators began to layout millimeter wave construction. China Unicom has accelerated the progress of millimeter wave industry chain in new technology research, new ecological construction, building millimeter wave standard system and new equipment research and development. In terms of technology, in the industry, it took the lead in carrying out internal and external millimeter wave equipment tests before ZTE and Ericsson, realizing that the downlink single user peak MAC throughput exceeded 2gbps (400m) and the uplink physical layer peak throughput exceeded 100Mbps (100m); In terms of standardization, participate in the formulation of enterprise and industry standards, and promote industry technology and testing standards; In terms of application deployment, we carried out the deployment of 8K, AR, VR, 3D and other millimeter wave applications for the Beijing Winter Olympic Games. China Mobile actively promotes the development of millimeter wave technology and standards, and adheres to the dual development of technology and application. In terms of technology, China Mobile, together with Huawei, ZTE, Datang, Ericsson and other manufacturers, carried out indoor and outdoor coverage scene tests on the 26 / 28ghz band; Combined with Qualcomm and ZTE to successfully realize millimeter wave mobility; In terms of application, China Mobile plans to realize 5g millimeter wave commercial in 2022 and deploy millimeter wave network based on SA. China Telecom has also gradually started the millimeter wave layout. In November 2019, it established a 5g innovation ecosystem to cooperate with United mobile communication on millimeter wave modules.

4.3.3 many equipment manufacturers participated in 5g millimeter wave test to achieve technical breakthrough

5g millimeter wave test of equipment manufacturers is in full swing.Equipment manufacturers carry out tests on millimeter wave technology and application in many aspects to promote the maturity of millimeter wave technology and equipment. Huawei cooperates with many parties to achieve a breakthrough in millimeter wave technology. In November 2017, Huawei and BTT DoCoMo of Japan jointly demonstrated the first 5g millimeter wave CPE to realize the end-to-end holographic video call of 5g millimeter wave. In April 2019, Huawei cooperated with imdea Network Research Institute of Spain to carry out channel correlation research of LF assisted HF, which helps millimeter wave technology to provide high-speed and high-quality video and multimedia content and services. In May of the same year, Huawei equipped with the mate 20x mobile phone of Baron 5000 to realize the function, RF and outfield performance of the world's first 5g millimeter wave key technology test. In October, Huawei completed the function, RF and outfield performance of 5g millimeter wave key technology test. Millimeter wave test and research of ZTE. ZTE has carried out millimeter wave research since 2014, actively carried out 5g millimeter wave R & D, function test and field test, and successively put forward hybrid shaping and arrayed high EIRP design ideas, smart beam scheme, scene beam configuration scheme and millimeter wave networking scheme. In July 2019, ZTE completed the radio frequency OTA test of 5g base station in 26ghz band. In October of the same year, it successfully realized 5g millimeter wave interoperability test based on smart phone with Qualcomm. Ericsson is mature in millimeter wave technology and products. In September 2018, Ericsson applied FWA in the commercial millimeter wave band in North America. In April of the same year, Ericsson and at & T, T-Mobile and Verizon, the three major operators in North America, took the lead in realizing the commercial application of millimeter wave surface to smart phones. In February 2020, Ericsson's engineer team achieved the fastest transmission speed under 5g millimeter wave, reaching 4.3gbps. In September of the same year, Ericsson cooperated with Qualcomm and U.S. cellular to realize 5gnr millimeter wave data communication test, with a transmission distance of more than 5km. By the middle of 2020, Ericsson has completedbecomeConstruction of more than 20 commercial networks or pilot projects. Ericsson millimeter wave products have gone through three generations of iterations to achieve low power, miniaturization, easy deployment and optimization.


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