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More Descriptions on Beidou Satellite, Beidou Positioning and Navigation and Beidou Antenna RF Transmission Connector from “Beidou Expert” Song Shiqiang from Kinghelm

Release date:2021-12-30Author source:KinghelmViews:927

As the growth pole of national economic development and footstone of information construction, PNT system (positioning, navigation and timing) affects our life and work and leads the direction of future development. Being originally engaged in R&D, production and sales of Beidou GPS modules branded “kinghelm”, Kinghelm (www.BDS666.com) now steps into R&D, production and sales of Beidou GPS antenna connectors, RF coaxial connectors and automobile harness connectors. Following the vision of becoming a provider of technically-advanced microwave RF wired/wireless connections and Beidou application products, the Company has been working hard for 14 years in Beidou industry, and researching new products of antenna connectors in military Beidou B3 frequency band.

As the growth pole of national economic development and footstone of information construction, PNT system (positioning, navigation and timing) affects our life and work and leads the direction of future development. Being originally engaged in R&D, production and sales of Beidou GPS modules branded “kinghelm”, Kinghelm (www.BDS666.com) now steps into R&D, production and sales of Beidou GPS antenna connectors, RF coaxial connectors and automobile harness connectors. Following the vision of becoming a provider of technically-advanced microwave RF wired/wireless connections and Beidou application products, the Company has been working hard for 14 years in Beidou industry, and researching new products of antenna connectors in military Beidou B3 frequency band.

By operating the WeChat Official Account of “Beidou Expert”, Kinghelm devotes itself in vigorously promoting the Beidou and telling the characters and stores about Beidou, and supporting the development of Beidou. For Kinghelm, Beidou is not just a business, but a career for life. As the founder of Kinghelm and also the research expert for private enterprise development of Economic Development Center of the State Council, Song Shiqiang actively offers advices and suggestions for economic development and renovation of Shenzhen, issued multiple papers on macroeconomic study and Shenzhen economy development in the authoritative media, to provide new thoughts and perspectives for the economic development and system renovation of Shenzhen. As Kinghelm is developed from Huaqiangbei, Song has been focused on researching Huaqiangbei and writing many papers to analyze its business mode, to research and explore its conversion, and provide suggestions and vigorously promote its purification and standardization, hoping Huaqiangbei can become the business card to represent the prosperity of Shenzhen and great achievements of reform and opening up.


GPS Modules, Beidou Antenna and Communication Antenna Series of Kinghelm

 

 

I. BDS (Beidou System)

Beidou System (BDS), which is short for (Beidou Navigation Satellite System), is collectively referred to as global four major navigation systems along with USA GPS, Russia GLONASS and EU Galileo. Surely, Japan and India are building or planned to build their own navigation systems, but neither of them is mature.

All of the four major navigation systems are based on microwave RF technology and basic data calculation functions. The module of navigation and poisoning terminal consists of RF chip and baseband chip, in which, RF chip can receive the signals from Beidou GPS satellites through the Beidou GPS antenna (Kinghelm is engaged in R&D and production of Beidou GPS antenna and coaxial cable of RF connector), then send the signals to baseband chip through the coaxial cable of RF connector, and Beidou baseband chip can calculate the real-time position of terminal based on the signal data received. Navigational positioning and timing also have other extended functions and application scenarios, thus creating a huge application market. The chip modules, antenna application terminals and use functions of GPS, Beidou, Glonass and Galileo are compatible.

 

RF Connectors, Pedestal Connectors, etc. Researched and Produced by Kinghelm

 

Being researched since the 1960s by the USA, GPS (global positioning system) is known by all in the Gulf War and now developed to the best navigation and positioning system globally after development for decades of years. GPS consists of 21+3 satellites, which are distributed in 6 orbital planes, with orbital altitude of 20,200Km and running period of 11h 58min. GPS has covered all aspects of our daily life and people will associate navigation with GPS naturally. Based on the advantage of time, high coverage and accurate positioning, the GPS led by USA has quick popularization globally. The GPS chips and solutions are widely adopted in automobiles, smartphones, ships, wearable devices, traffic tools or intelligent devices. As the navigation system of Russia, Glonass consists of 24 satellites which are distributed in 3 orbital planes, each of which has 8 satellites, with orbital altitude of 19,100Km and running period of 11h 15min. Due to Russia’s sagging economy in recent years, Glonass has poor performance and basically used for military weapons and national security of Russia. As the positioning and navigation system of Europe, Galileo consists of 30 satellites which are distributed in 3 orbits, with orbital height of 24,126Km; it has good positioning accuracy. The chip modules terminals of GPS, Beidou and Galileo are compatible and non-exclusive, so they can have crossed and mixed use in most cases. Our Beidou GPS antennas and ceramic chips are compatible with the four frequency points. The aforementioned systems which send and transmit signals through satellites are always called SBAS (Satellite based augmentation system). There are also ground-based systems and sea-based systems.

 

    

BDS (Beidou System), as a navigation and positioning system being developed independently by China, ranked the second temporarily in terms of market share and it has the trend of overtopping USA GPS based on its current development status. Before BDS has mature applications, the relevant domestic industries are basically matched with GPS and core technologies are controlled by foreign countries. Now, BDS-3 has realized global signal coverage and over 5 BDS satellites can be found in any region of the Earth; so, BDS becomes a real global positioning system. BDS-3 consists of 24 MEO (medium earth orbit) satellites, 3 GSO (geostationary earth orbit) satellites and 3 IGSO (inclined geosynchronous orbit) satellites. The new BDS has a total of 55 satellites along with the previously launched Beidou satellites. Merits of BDS: Firstly, the hybrid constellation which consists of 3 types of orbit satellites is adopted in space segment, the HEOS (high earth orbit satellites) can have higher resistance to shielding and enjoy better performance characteristics at low latitudes. Secondly, BDS can provide navigation signals of multiple frequency points, to improve the navigation accuracy by combining the signals of multiple frequencies. We have developed the military positioning and navigation antennas based on the frequency point B3 of Beidou; it can also be used as atmosphere product in meteorological service. Thirdly, BDS has innovatively integrated the navigation and communication capability, to provide the services such as timing navigation, satellite-based augmentation, ground-based augmentation, single-point precise positioning, SMS communication and international search and rescue.

In comparison with GPS and other navigation systems, BDS (www.BDS666.com) has the unique advantage of SMS communication; moreover, its functions can be stronger and more practical based on the communication functions of Tiantong-01 satellite. The new market derived from Beidou can bring a new growth point of our economy, promote the occurrence and development of industries such as home-made Beidou chips, navigation and positioning, facilitate people’s life, improve our national strength and influence, and make people feel proud and elated in military industry and national defense.

 

II Beidou Positioning and Navigation

As a branch of wireless communication technology, navigation and positioning are realized based on emission, transmission, receiving of microwave and RF signal, as well as data calculation and signal analysis. How is positioning realized by BDS and GPS: Multiple satellites in air consist the signal emission system, the global GPS and BDS user terminals can search over 4 GPS and BDS satellites in all weathers and all segments, calculate the distance between one satellite and user terminal receiver, then calculate the specific position of terminal based on the same type of data from other satellites. Surely, BDS and GPS can realize compatibility, mutual reference and calibration of data. Our BDS modules and antenna are compatible with GPS modules and antennas, and even compatible with Glonass and Galileo as required. Sometimes, the antenna of one intelligent terminal can be compatible with signals such as GSM communication signals and FM signals.

The new and popular vehicle-mounted GSM, Beidou and GPS 3-module 2-in-one antenna developed by us (www.bds666.com) is compatible with BDS, GPS and also GSM communication, to break the information isolated island status of positioning and communication of traditional intelligent hardware, to create better application scenarios, bring better use experience and improve the product value.


 

GMS Communication, Beidou and GPS 2-in-one SMA Interface Vehicle-mounted Antenna Developed by Kinghelm

 

Relying on the basic technologies such as microwave and RF, we can also realize other positioning modes, such as ground base positioning, WIFI positioning, IP positioning, RFID RF label positioning, QR code label positioning, Bluetooth positioning, Zigbee positioning, sound wave positioning, AI scenario identification positioning, geomagnetic wave positioning, sea wave positioning, UWB (Ultra-Wide Band) wireless broadband positioning. The auxiliary positioning also includes A-GPS, acceleration sensor and gyroscope positioning. These technologies can be used independently or jointly, to improve the stability and reliability. Generally, one or more techniques are adopted in the complex and extreme scenarios, to have mutual supplementation and reference calibration. Our technicians have rich experience in the high-accuracy positioning and navigation and positioning of military products.


Generally, it is divided into outdoor positioning technology and indoor positioning technology depending on the application scenarios.

 

1. The outdoor positioning techniques mainly include satellite positioning techniques such as BDS, GPS, as well as base station IP and A-GPS positioning techniques.

 

Satellite navigation and positioning is a mature technique. The well-known systems include GPS, BDS, Glonass and Galileo, which are analyzed jointly here. Satellite positioning technology has the same principle of 3D positioning. Generally, one satellite can define the user’s sphere, two satellites can define the user’s circumference, three satellites can define the two points of user in circumference, and four satellites can realize accurate positioning of user. Difference of satellite positioning techniques: They have different position of positioning reference satellites; the country of signal emission and management is different; the most familiar technology is widely used, including our smartphones and vehicles.

Base station IP positioning technology: As an independent or auxiliary positioning measure that is widely used, it can determine the position based on the known base station position (IP) of mobile communication, or the information of client mobile terminal. The common techniques include: Single base station positioning, multi-base station positioning and multi-mode positioning mixed with other modes. Principle of base station: Based on the known IP address, the mobile device can calculate the position of adjacent three base stations to calculate the current position of device.

Take A-GPS positioning technique for example, the process from start of A-GPS positioning to searching of available GPS terminal receiver is as follows:

(1) The device acquires the current position of community from the honeycomb base station (i.e. one-time COO positioning);

(2) The device sends the current honeycomb community position to A-GPS position server through honeycomb network;

(3) A-GPS position server queries the available information of BDS and GPS satellites (including frequency band, orientation and elevation of satellite) based on the current community position, and returns the information to terminal device;

(4) Based on the available information of satellite, the GPS and BDS terminal can search the available GPS satellites quickly, the GPS and BS terminal receiver can receive information of GPS and BDS satellites normally and initialization process is finished. The increase of positioning speed by A-GPS is represented in this process. Generally, our engineers call this process the warm start. It is believed that users of navigation equipment have deep feeling about it.

These auxiliary positioning means can be used in some special application scenarios. GPS and BDS are nonradiative, but fail to penetrate the reinforced concrete due to weak penetrating power. The GPS and BDS positioning will drift under the flyover or in places with dense buildings, and become unavailable in indoor space or confined space due to signal shielding of weakening, for satellite navigation and positioning has the same principle. The backup of GNSS becomes more important when GNSS system can be attacked or disturbed, or the signals fail to cover the indoor and underground space. Some ground base systems should be supplemented where SBAS signals fail to meet the requirements.

2. Indoor positioning technology (non-exposed or cover the interior of space)

Indoor positioning and navigation technology, which is also known as non-exposed or covering space positioning technology, has a promising business outlook along with the popularization of science and market development. This product is under constant investigation, but not applied widely due to restriction of technology and cost. Recently, the indoor positioning technology became popular again, as the iBeacon technology launched by Apple Inc has driven other techniques such as WIFI positioning, IP positioning, Zigbee positioning, RFID positioning, QR code label positioning, Bluetooth positioning and wireless broadband UWB positioning technology. The relevant products and news information are presented to you. The Chonghua positioning backup system, which enjoys independent intellectual property rights, is being researched by a corporation in Chengdu, has universality with the pioneering ground-based, high-accuracy and proprietary PNT navigation technique by Locata in University of New South Wales, Australia; the technical route should be sourced from the (Loran-c) system in the 1990s of the USA. The correction antenna of military navigation positioning signal is also researched by us based on this system!

 

 

Comparison between Parameters and Merits/Demerits of Indoor Navigation Techniques

 

Thirdly, BDS and GPS antenna and RF signal transmission connector

Let’s introduce our antenna! Our antenna branded kinghelm is used for receiving the BDS and GPS signals, and our signal connection products, such as kinghelm RF connection cables and coaxial connectors, are used for signal transmission; so, we are quite familiar with this field. Some antennas are classified by named by function and application scope, such as television antenna; some are classified by shape, such as Xiaolajiao antenna and boat paddle antenna; some are classified by material, such as glass steel antenna, while some are classified by application scope, such as GSM antenna. A brief summary is made as follows:

1. Rod/whip antenna: Generally, they are omnidirectional antennas and may have 360° homogeneous radiation even at horizontal direction, that is to say, it is not directional and the gain is not high. Such antennas have wide application without special requirements, such as household Wi-Fi, broadcasting station, suburban county region stations of mobile communication systems. The radio receiver we always used in childhood belongs to such antenna.

2. Ceiling-mounted antenna: As an antenna of mobile communication system, the ceiling-mounted antenna is mainly used for indoor signal coverage, such as venue, hotel, office building, cinema and residual building. The white and downward bulge is the antenna body to radiate signals externally; the feeder is connected at the rear side to send the signals from mobile base station to the antenna. Regardless of the different shapes, the indoor ceiling-mounted antennas sold in markets basically have the same structure of inner cores. Generally, the operator of which signals cover the region can be known by user by glancing the antenna, for the antenna will be marked with brand of China Mobile or Unicom.

3. As the air dielectric microstrip antenna with high directivity, the wall-mounted antenna is mainly mounted on the walls of room, hall and corridor, has good looking and is generally used in narrow indoor space. While installing the wall-mounted antenna, make sure its front area is not blocked and it is not directly facing the openings from which signals can be leaked outdoors, such as window and gate. In general, the gain of wall-mounted antenna is higher than that of ceiling-mounted antenna by 6~10dB. For example, it is also applied in the ETC of highway.

 

 

Ceiling-mounted Communication Antenna in Outer Corridor of Office of Kinghelm

 

Yagi antenna: As a directional antenna with high gain, Yagi antenna is an end transmission antenna that consists of one active oscillator (folded oscillator, in general), one passive reflector, several passive guides which have parallel arrangement. It is such named for being invented jointly by Hidetsugu Yagi and Taro Uda of Tohoku University. The gain of Yagi antenna increases along with the number of units. Generally, the 6~12unit Yagi antenna is adopted, with its gain as high as 10~15dB. Featured by high gain, lightweight structure, convenient erecting and favorable price, Yagi antenna applies to point-to-point communication or introduces outdoor signals to indoor spaces, making it the primary choice for outdoor collection antenna. For example, Yagi antenna is always used for improving the indoor weak signals of mobile phones in certain region.


 

RF Adapter and Connection Cable Produced by Kinghelm

 

5. Planar antenna of base station: It is a common and important base station antenna that belongs to directional antenna. Merits of planar antenna: High gain, good directional diagram of fan section, small back lobe, easy control over depression angle of vertical pattern, reliable sealing performance and long service life. Due to complex type selection and setting, the parameters such as downward inclination angle, direction angle, antenna hanging height, antenna diversity distance and isolation distance should be set strictly.

The gain is about 14~17dB for common planar antenna of base station, or 16~19dB for extended planar antenna of base station. Without a doubt, the length of extended planar antenna is twice that of common planar antenna and reaches around 2.4m.

         

         

 

Display Cabinet for BDS and GPS RF Connector Produced and Sold by Kinghelm

 

6. High-gain parabolic antenna. Due to good focusing function of paraboloid, the parabolic antenna has strong collection and transmission. The gain can be 20dB for parabolic antenna with diameter of 1.5m. This antenna is widely adopted in radar or satellite system, for the radar needs to have concentrated radiation of energy towards the emission direction, collect the echo at detection direction only and identify the target orientation and elevation. Grid structure is adopted in some paraboloids, in order to reduce the antenna weight and wind resistance.

 

GPS Module, BDS Antenna, Ceramic Communication Antenna and FPC Antenna of Kinghelm

 

7. SBX-1 sea-based X-band antenna: Due to curvature of the earth, the coverage range of fixed radar is highly limited. The “Sea Eye” SBX-1 sea-based X-band antenna consists of many small radar radomes and one 1,814mt phase array radar antenna This phase array radar antenna needs to be driven by over 1Megawatt power supply, owns 30,000 groups of transmission/receiving T/R modules, with floor place over 384m2, in order to search and track the targets. Besides, it can exchange information with missile defense system of Vandenberg AFB in California and Fort Reilly in Alaska, both of them have the capability of intercepting and shooting down missiles.

For more information about BDS and GPS antenna industry, please follow “Beidou Expert” official account that is run by Kinghelm, or visit www.bds666.com. For any demands of product, please contact Kinghelm to receive one-to-one high-quality services!


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