On November 1, 2021, the national standard of safety requirements for electric vehicle power exchange was officially implemented, which is the first basic universal national industry standard formulated by China's automobile manufacturing industry in the power exchange industry.
The electric vehicle replacement mode refers to the centralized storage, centralized charging and unified distribution of a large number of batteries through the centralized charging station, and the battery replacement service for electric vehicles in the battery distribution station; Or through the power exchange station, it integrates battery charging, logistics, deployment and power exchange services.
For a long time, the endurance capacity and inconvenient supporting facilities of new energy vehicles are important reasons why it is difficult to promote new energy vehicles on a large scale. In addition, the attenuation of battery efficiency is also one of the reasons affecting the promotion of new energy vehicles. Generally speaking, the attenuation of vehicle battery efficiency to 70% has a great impact on vehicle use.
As another way to supplement the energy of new energy vehicles, the advantage of power exchange is that it can complete the power exchange in about 3 minutes, and consumers can rent batteries or buy batteries to reduce the initial purchase cost.
In fact, since last year, the power exchange mode of new energy vehicles has been "supported" by many departments such as the Ministry of industry and information technology, and the power exchange mode is ushering in a new era.
Driven by the increased penetration of new energy vehicles and policies, the construction scale of electric vehicle replacement power stations in China has been increasing. By October 2021, China had built 1086 replacement power stations, with a year-on-year increase of more than 100%.
Although the construction of the power exchange station has begun to take shape, compared with the charging mode, the volume of the power exchange mode is relatively small and the development space is large. According to the prediction of forward-looking research institute and China Power Union, the number of power exchange stations in China will exceed 2000 in 2025 and 10000 in 2035. The scale of China's electric vehicle power exchange market is expected to exceed 14 billion yuan in 2026.
——Many giants have entered the circuit to change electricity
Since 2015, some domestic new energy vehicle manufacturers began to try the power change mode, which was mainly aimed at taxis and other operating vehicles.
With the gradual recognition of the power exchange mode, many enterprises have indicated that they will carry out the R & D and layout of the power exchange mode. Dongfeng, Weilai, Aodong, BAIC, Chang'an, SAIC, Geely and other enterprises have cut into the power exchange track.
From the perspective of manufacturer structure, China's power exchange station market is mainly occupied by Aodong new energy, Weilai automobile and bertan technology, of which Aodong and bertan focus on the operating vehicle market and Weilai on the private car market. As of October 2021, the ownership of Austrian power exchange station accounted for 56.08%, Weilai accounted for 34.07%, and Hangzhou Botan accounted for 9.85%.
——The replacement connector came into being
The power change connector is an important part of the quick change battery system. It is a special connector used to realize the rapid electrical connection and separation between the whole vehicle and the quick change battery system. It is mainly composed of quick change plug, quick change socket and related cables.
In the application of new energy vehicle power exchange mode, the power exchange connector is the only electrical interface of the battery pack, which needs to provide mixed connection of high voltage, low voltage, communication and grounding at the same time.
The power exchange connector is also expected to become the industry standard. On the one hand, due to the improvement of the penetration rate of electric vehicles in the power exchange mode, on the other hand, for electric vehicle manufacturers in non power exchange mode, the power exchange scheme will realize the separation of vehicle and electricity, which is conducive to the upgrading, maintenance and recycling of batteries in the later stage. From the current industry application situation, the value of replacing electric connectors ranges from 500-1200 yuan for passenger cars and 2500-3000 yuan for commercial vehicles. The popularization of replacing electric connectors will greatly increase the overall market scale of electric vehicle connectors.
At present, connector enterprises have continuously entered this market. Ruida began to cooperate with Weilai in 2015. Based on the understanding of power exchange products and modes accumulated in the early stage, combined with the floating tolerance technology of connector products, Ruida customized power exchange research and development scheme for Weilai automobile and became its main power exchange connector supplier.
——The replacement connector shall have large floating compensation capacity, high service life and low maintenance cost
In the process of rapid power exchange, due to the matching error in the connection and insertion between the battery and the vehicle end, the floating compensation design of the power exchange connector is a technical difficulty. It is required that the power exchange connector needs to have floating compensation ability and can still better complete the mixed connection of high voltage, low voltage, communication and grounding within a certain tolerance range. The battery replacement frequency of the whole vehicle is generally 1-15 times / week for passenger vehicles and 7-70 times / week for commercial vehicles. The service life of the replacement connector is generally 3000-10000 times and low maintenance cost. Therefore, the core technology of the power exchange connector is reflected in the technical indexes such as large floating compensation capacity and long service life.
As a solution for charging and energy supplement of new energy vehicles, the power exchange mode has great advantages in charging efficiency. At present, it can also take shape in policy and market layout of leading enterprises. If the power exchange mode can be successfully promoted, it will be a new development opportunity for upstream and downstream enterprises in the industrial chain, including connector enterprises. However, in addition to the more complex requirements for site, infrastructure and supporting power consumption, the problems such as inconsistent battery technical standards, high construction and operation costs and heavy assets are still difficult problems in the large-scale promotion of power exchange mode.
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