In the traditional mass production, a garment requires an order quantity of thousands or even tens of thousands of pieces, so that the factory is willing to take orders for production, and can afford experienced workers and quality guaranteed fabrics. After 200 workers are busy for a month, this batch of goods can be delivered.
If you ask this kind of factory to make clothes with only 100 pieces for you, the factory will generally not accept it, because this order only needs less than 10 workers, and the other 190 workers can only be idle.
Even if it is accepted, the expenses for the design, printing, sample clothes, production and import of this dress can only be spread among the 100 clothes, which will cause the production cost of these 100 clothes to be seriously higher than the mass production of the same quality, and have an inherent disadvantage in price competition.
Finally, even if you are willing to give money, the factory is willing to accept it. There is a high probability that the production of this batch of goods will be delayed because the order is too small and the workers are busy making big goods. Only in their spare time will a few people come to make do.
So now, small order production is either high-priced handicrafts or low-cost and low-quality small workshops, such as some diffuse T-shirts; Rapid response is out of the question, unless you drink the factory director down and he persuades you and specially matches you with several people.
Therefore, suppose there is a production mode, making 100 or even 10 clothes can be compared with the mass production of 1000 or 10000 pieces: the cost is similar to that of mass production; The quality and materials can be the same as batch production; The production time can be the same or even shorter than that of mass production.
Some of these models are called flexible manufacturing, some are called customized production, and some are called rapid response production.
Compared with other dazzling technologies, this production model is not sexy at all, but its practical significance can not be ignored.
Because sellers are afraid of inventory.Inventory of offline stores.
Originally, the store was expected to sell 300 pieces of this kind of clothes this quarter, but it sold 100 pieces. In the end, 200 pieces of this kind of clothes were stacked in inventory. Then you find that twenty models are like this;
Then you find that there are 100 stores like this; Your company is gone.
Those engaged in e-commerce are also afraid of inventory, but offline passenger flow has become online traffic, and stores have become Taobao stores and live broadcasting rooms.
If you can't sell it, you can't pay for it. In order to sell it, you can only hang a link to digest it slowly and accumulate it in the warehouse.
By the way, live webcast red often doesn't even have a warehouse. Boss Lei's famous saying: mobile phones are seafood and dare not hoard goods. Not to mention clothes.
Businesses want to place small orders and sell little by little without pressing inventory. However, if you disagree with mass production, you can't do it at the cost you give;
Businesses also want to sell a fire, production can quickly keep up, 100 sold out, and produce 1000 within three days to clean up the flow of impulse consumption. But mass production also disagrees: I didn't save so many auxiliary materials, so I didn't have time;
Mass production hopes to ship tens of thousands of pieces at a time, but the merchants disagree. Few can do it online and offline. Sales fluctuated slightly, and the company was directly crushed by inventory.
Flexible manufacturing can start with small batch orders, keep the cost consistent with mass production, and quickly enter the production state. It seems to solve the problem.
theoretically.What is the difficulty in reality?You need to collect all the data at the production end, including the equipment action at the production end and the warehouse inventory of the supply chain, so that you can know the production progress at any time and allocate raw materials in real time.
You also need to put almost all process procedures online, so that workers can switch processes at any time with instructions, and let the system tell workers what to do next, rather than the team leader teaching them over and over again.
You have to digitize everything just now and move it to a system platform. In front, you can connect stores and e-commerce, and in the back, you can connect to the logistics system. In this way, the order can enter production at the fastest speed and be delivered immediately after production. Hard
Wait, it doesn't seem particularly difficultyes.Sensors of detection equipment, including:; For the edge calculation of data preprocessing, there are; Means of real-time data transmission, 5g, yes; Computing after data aggregation, cloud computing, yes.
Well, when you think about it, it seems that there are all.This is a classic paradigm of industrial Internet.Integrate the existing technology, apply it to the manufacturing end on a large scale, get through the data penetration of personnel, equipment and raw materials, compress the response time of each link and optimize the matching efficiency.
It's best to match with artificial intelligence to calculate which batch of materials are sent to which station.Finally, it can reduce the production threshold, maintain the cost equivalent to large-scale production and speed up the production response speed.
Three major Internet, consumer Internet, industrial Internet and credit Internet.
Consumption has been made by Tencent Ali Kwai and they have been led by the state.
Only the industrial Internet, the data on the production side is still almost blank.It still sounds boring. In addition to making the goods cool, the inventory pressure is much lower. What's the use?
It's of great use.This means that we may use data to form a long-term industrial hegemony.
Because the world's low-end processing and manufacturing industries are all mass production.We used to transfer labor-intensive processing and manufacturing industries to Southeast Asia because of their low added value. In addition, workers' wages are bound to increase with economic development. When the two intersect, the industry will transfer to Southeast Asia, where workers' costs are lower.
However, the importance of industry can not only look at added value.
The added value of clothing is low, but it has fed a large number of upstream and downstream industrial clusters, from printing and dyeing to flour accessories to cotton in Xinjiang.
Once the transfer starts, most of the industrial chain will be separated from China. A large number of employment, taxation, scientific research and application environments involved in this process will disappear.
The rise of an industrial park in Vietnam means that today they may only be sewing factories, and next year they may build new printing and dyeing factories; In the year after the University, Vietnamese children majoring in fashion design and engineering can be employed. In another five years, Vietnam's garment sewing machinery industry will begin to develop.
For every 10% Vietnam gets, we have to lose at least three points.Because after the industrial transfer, our remaining middle and low-end labor force can not be completely digested by the middle and high-end manufacturing industry. It is a great waste of skilled workers to send takeout for housekeeping.
It can only be digested by national infrastructure or local investment.The industrial capital originally deposited in the production cycle will be released and poured into the financial capital field, further increasing the pressure of capital surplus.
Meidi is the best example of the consequences of industrial hollowing out. Our volume is here, not South Korea, Japan and Germany. We can support the whole country by several industries.
Industry cannot be easily transferred.How can the industrial Internet ease industrial transfer? for instance:
During the epidemic, the global clothing trade halved, and the total global trade volume is expected to fall by one-third this year.
How many fewer overseas orders are there in China? one-third? no quarter? Neither; fifth part? almost.
Optimistic estimates can even be controlled in the early tenth.The wages of our textile workers have been nearly ten times that of Vietnamese workers. Why didn't the trade volume fall so hard during the epidemic?
Because the textile industry in Southeast Asia collapsed first.Their manufacture is purely rigid.Southeast Asia has only large-scale manufacturing, but also manpower and factories, and has no adjustment capacity. If there is a problem with the color of a piece of fabric, go to Guangzhou Zhongda to find a master; A sewing machine has a problem. I have to go to Zhejiang to find a small worker.
Get a visa to go abroad to help them solve their problems.So they don't have the ability to fine tune and switch. Only those socks that sell hundreds of thousands of pairs around the world and are of a single style are suitable for the production mode in Southeast Asia.
Once businesses face the risk of inventory and capital turnover, they will be the first to give up Southeast Asia and return to China to place orders.What does China have?It has the basic flexibility ability to rely on industrial clusters.In a garment industrial park, there are fabrics, zipper buttons, foremen who can find skilled workers, sales points selling production equipment, supporting maintenance workers, sample clothing workshops for printing and sample making, and design studios that run factories regularly.
What's missing? A phone.Does China's garment industry really live today by cheap labor?In fact, China's garment industry relies on the large-scale production and basic flexible capacity formed by industrial clusters, both of which are supported to today. Are these abilities really worthless?
Can such industrial clusters really let them dissipate on the grounds of "low-end", "non environmental protection" and "lack of technical content"?
This is an industry that still employs one tenth of Chinese industrial practitioners today. It is one of the most complete and developed industrial categories in the world.The task of the industrial Internet is to digitize these capabilities:After the capacity of mass production is digitized, standardization and automation can be accelerated;After the basic flexibility capability is digitized, the flexibility index and customization range can be further improved.
After the two are digitized, the data can become one of the raw materials for production, which is also the core concept of German industry 4.0.
If we continue to compete with Southeast Asia in terms of manpower costs and infrastructure, we will always be unable to compete. The manpower is cheap, the infrastructure is getting better, and they give you a piece of land.
To spell, spell what they don't have, such as data.
We can master the real-time data of the whole production chain, but they don't. This determines that even if our production cost is 10% to 20% higher than theirs, the seller will choose us for the safety of his funds.
I promise you won't be crushed by inventory. I can help you meet your customized needs, and I can give you the best response time.
In this advantage, our "low-end" industry can become more and more high-end with the optimization of technical basis data; Southeast Asia will be unable to compete with us at the initial stage, and the subsequent industrialization process will shrink spontaneously due to the lack of benefits under comparative advantage.
Even if the government is willing to develop industrialization, the long-term lack of private capital will only make their burden heavier and heavier.
Delaying the industrialization of other countries, maintaining and deepening domestic industrial clusters, and finally monopolizing global production capacity is industrial hegemony.
No way, no resources, no global currency, this road is difficult, but this is the most honest road.The industrial Internet is not as eye-catching as other technologies.
However, we are on the eve of the next industrial revolution. Although the existing technology iteration is exciting, the critical point has not been reached. Therefore, such fundamental breakthroughs as atomic energy to electricity and computers to mechanization will probably take time.
As a platform, industrial Internet can integrate and stack multiple optimization technologies without generation difference to form a model platform with generation difference.
In the next five years, there will be more and more industries that used to be considered "low-end" and a large number of industrial Internet platforms will be born. These platforms are expected to become a solid base in "made in China 2025".
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